Skip to main content

System of Fleas Study

Introduction to the System PARHOST1

Analytical information system (AIS) on the world flea fauna PARHOST1 has been created in the laboratory of parasitology of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (ZI RAS) for the past four years beginning from 1995. Initially these works were supported by the grant obtained by Dr. N.A. Filippova from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and later by the grant of S.G. Medvedev allocated by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research for Doctors of Sciences younger than 41 years old.


S.G.Medvedev, A.L.Lobanov

Years of development 1995 – 1999



RFBR grants:  N 94-04-12081 (chief – N.A.Filippova)

                        N 96-15-97063 (chief – S.G.Medvedev)

Total tables 70
Total records 76 000
Total size of DB 49 Mb
Software 150 programs (FoxPro and Fortran)

By the present time 70 tables of this system contain 76,000 records comprising 49 Mb, and their work is provided by 150 innovative programs in the languages FoxPro and Fortran. The programs and structure of the tables of this system not only provide for search of data, but also permit realizing a number of eurystic algorhythms mentioned below.

In connection with the great epidemiological importance of fleas they were studied intensively by many specialists from different countries of the world. Their species composition has been studied relatively well. There are abundant literature data and collection material on fleas, which need analysis and generilization. For instance, till present no review on the fauna of fleas of Russia has been published. There is also a necessisty of a further study of fleas, using different methods, including a combination of light and scanning microscopy, application of light microscopy plus computer processing of images and also creation of computer systems. The latter will accumulate numerous fragmentary data on structure, distribution and parasite-host relations of fleas and will also permit analysis and generalization.

Great epidemiological importance of fleas

Intensive studies of flea fauna in different countries of the world

Vast knowledge of the world’s flea fauna by the end of the 20th century
(approximately 2000 of fleas species are known)

Need for the generalization of the accumulated data using new methods

of light microscopy
and electron microscopy
of PC compatible
light microscopes
Creation of

Advantages of the ZOOCOD Classifiers

Tables of ZOOCOD2 standard most completely reflect the diversity of possible hierarchical levels of classification. Our AIS contains a number of such tables, each of which regulates and structures the diversity of taxa of parasites (fleas), hosts (mammals or birds), physical geography objects and administrative territories.

DB classifiers permit:

Usage of both basic and intermediate
taxonomic categories
Generalizations of data on subordinate
taxa for higher taxa
Operating both synonymic and
valid taxonomic names
Unrestricted inclusion of information
in the hierarchical classifications schemes